Diabetes is a very serious and dangerous disease that requires constant treatment. Along with the use of drug therapy, patients should lead a healthy lifestyle, give up addictions and play sports. It is equally important to know what you can eat with diabetes and what products to completely avoid.
If there is a significant deterioration in well-being, malaise, constant and, moreover, unquenchable thirst, xerostomia, frequent urination, skin itching, especially in the area of the feet and groin, a specialist should be contacted immediately. endocrinologist and undergo an examination. These symptoms indicate the development of diabetes.
The disease is certainly dangerous and serious, but this is not a sentence. Many people live with an illness. In order to normalize your well-being, maintain a normal blood sugar level and prevent unpleasant symptoms, you must follow a special diet and know what you can eat with diabetes.
Pathology can develop in both adults and children. The disease is often diagnosed in pregnant women. With proper treatment and a healthy diet, the disease can be controlled.
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What can you drink with diabetes
Most patients try to follow a diet. They don't eat junk food and try to make food as healthy and balanced as possible. But not everyone keeps track of what drinks they drink. Diabetics should not drink alcoholic beverages, store-bought juices, strong tea, kvass, sweet soda.
If you want to drink, you should prefer the following drinks:
- still mineral water or purified water;
- unsweetened juices;
- weak teas;
- green tea;
- decoctions and infusions of medicinal plants;
- freshly squeezed juices (but only diluted);
- skimmed milk products.
Doctors do not recommend patients to drink coffee. But scientists have proven that coffee is rich in useful and necessary substances, including antioxidants that help prevent the development of tumors. They are rich in grains and linoleic acid, which prevent the development of heart attacks, strokes and other pathologies of the cardiovascular system. Therefore, you can drink coffee with diabetes, the main thing is that the coffee is natural and without sugar.
Basic rules of healthy eating
Every diabetic without exception should know what to eat in the presence of diabetes. Eating all the dishes in a row is fraught with a deterioration in general well-being.
Any diet, including diabetes, has its own characteristics and rules.
Diet therapy is intended for:
- limiting the consumption of carbohydrate products;
- reducing calorie consumption;
- use of fortified foods;
- five to six meals a day;
- meals at the same time;
- nutritional supplementation with natural vitamins - vegetables and fruits (except sweet ones, especially persimmons and dates);
- eat small meals;
- exclusion of long intervals between meals;
- drawing up the menu, taking into account the GI of the product;
- reduce salt consumption;
- refusal to eat fatty, spicy, spicy, fried food;
- giving up alcohol and sweet soda, as well as semi-finished products and fast food;
- replacing sugar with natural sweeteners: fructose, sorbitol, etc. ;
- the use of boiled, oven-baked and steamed foods.
Proper nutrition is the key to good health
Diabetes patients, regardless of the type of disease, should follow a proper and healthy diet:
- To keep insulin levels constant, you need to eat a full breakfast.
- Every meal should start with a vegetable salad. It contributes to the normalization of metabolic processes and weight correction.
- The last meal should be no later than three hours before bedtime.
- The food you eat should be at a comfortable temperature. You can eat warm and moderately cool foods with diabetes.
- You can drink the liquid either half an hour before eating or 30 minutes after. Do not drink water or juice during meals.
- It is important to stick to a routine. Eating five to six times a day helps prevent rapid increases in blood glucose levels.
- The diet should be enriched with low-fat fish, low-fat dairy products, vegetables and fruits, and cereals.
- Diabetics should avoid sugar and all products containing it.
- The optimal daily calorie content is 2400 kcal.
- It is also important to monitor the chemical composition of the dishes. The proportion of complex carbohydrates in the daily diet is 50%, proteins - 20%, fats - 30%.
- One and a half liters of purified or mineral still water should be drunk per day.
GI (glycemic index) - what is it?
Each product has its own GI. Otherwise, it is called a "bread unit" - XE. And if the nutritional value determines how much useful substances will be converted into energy for the body, then GI is an indicator of the digestibility of carbohydrate products. This indicates how quickly carbohydrate foods are absorbed while raising blood sugar levels.
What can diabetics eat, following the diet and table number 9
Many patients, when they hear the word "diet", think of it as a sentence. They believe that their diet will be limited to a minimum. In fact, everything is far from it. Dietary therapy for the disease means limiting caloric intake, consuming complex carbohydrates and eliminating simple carbohydrates. Food can be both medicinal and delicious at the same time. You just need to know what diabetics can eat.
Eating right will help both control weight and maintain normal insulin levels.
Patients are allowed to use the following products:
- From bread. It is preferable that it is black bread or products intended for diabetics. The daily norm is 300 g. It is also allowed to use grain, whole grain and "Borodino" bread.
- Soups. It is preferable that the first dishes are cooked on vegetable broths.
- Lean meat (veal, beef, rabbit, chicken) and fish: zander, carp, cod. Any cooking method, only baking is excluded.
- Eggs and scrambled eggs. You can consume no more than one egg per day. Abuse of this product is associated with an increase in cholesterol.
- Dairy products (low-fat milk, cottage cheese, kefir, sour milk, fermented baked milk, natural yogurts).
- Cheese (unsalted and low-fat).
- Berries and fruits: grapefruit, raspberry, apple, kiwi. Their use helps not only to increase the sugar level, but also to lower the level of harmful cholesterol.
- Vegetables: cabbage, tomatoes, cucumbers, radishes, greens.
- Honey (limited quantity).
- Drinks: juices, herbal preparations, mineral water.
All these products can be eaten by diabetics. But the main thing is to observe the measure in everything. Food should not be greasy. You can't drink alcohol either.
Approved products for people with an insulin-dependent form
The pathology of the first type, or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is characterized by severe symptoms, an acute course, and is accompanied by an increased appetite. In addition to using insulin, it is important to know what diabetics can eat. Proper nutrition is the best way to maintain health and well-being.
The diet of diabetic patients with type 1 pathology is similar to the diet of type 2 patients. It is allowed to use: non-carbonated mineral water, seafood and low-fat fish, oatmeal and buckwheat, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, boiled eggs, dietary meat.
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Table number 9 for pathology
Most often, patients are prescribed to follow the nutritional table no. 9. The diet provides for six meals a day, excluding fat, fried food, spicy, smoked meat, salty food and sweets. The energy value of the daily diet should not exceed 2500 kcal. Diabetics can eat food prepared in any way except frying.
What not to do with diabetes: permitted and prohibited foods, sample menu
Every person suffering from a serious illness should know what not to do with diabetes. Abuse of harmful products is associated with deterioration.
The listed products must be discarded:
- Sahara. It is recommended to replace with sweeteners.
- Baking. This type of food is strictly prohibited. In addition to being high in sugar, they are also high in calories, which is not very good for blood glucose levels.
- Fatty meat and fish products.
- Smoked foods and preserves. These products have a high glycemic index.
- Animal fat, mayonnaise.
- Dairy products with high fat content.
- Semolina and cereal products, as well as pasta.
- Vegetables. You cannot eat certain vegetables with diabetes, but if this fails, you should limit their consumption as much as possible: potatoes, fried zucchini.
- Sweet fruits.
- Drinks: sweet soda, concentrated or store-bought juices, compotes, strong black tea.
- Snacks, seeds, chips.
- Sweets. With any type of diabetes, especially with gestational diabetes, the use of ice cream, jam, milk chocolate is prohibited.
- Alcoholic drinks.
Allowed and prohibited products:
Proper nutrition along with insulin administration is key to good health. Following the diet, as well as taking medication, the patient must be lifelong. This is the only way to maintain normal blood sugar levels. What to eat and what not to eat with diabetes.
Allowed to eat:
- purified water or mineral water;
- weak tea, coffee;
- Green peas;
- from bread;
- legumes (peas, beans, lentils);
- low-fat cheeses;
- low-fat dairy products;
- low-fat boiled sausage;
- meat and fish products.
It is forbidden to eat:
- alcoholic drinks;
- sweets (ice cream, jam, candies, cookies);
- canned food;
- smoked and sausage products;
- fatty meat and fish products;
- fatty dairy products;
- animal fat.
How to replace harmful products
Patients are forbidden to eat high-calorie foods, as such products provoke the progression of the disease and worsen the effect of the drug.
Harmful products can be replaced with useful ones, suitable in terms of composition:
- White bread can be replaced with rye flour products.
- Sweets and desserts - berries and diabetic desserts.
- Animal fats are vegetable fats.
- Fatty meat products and cheeses - low-fat products, avocados.
- Cream is a low-fat dairy product.
- Ice cream - hard cheeses, seafood, legumes.
- Beer - dairy products, beef, eggs.
- Sweet soda - beets, carrots, legumes.
- Sausage is a dairy product.
Approximate weekly menu
You can independently create a menu for each day or at once for the whole week, taking into account what is possible and what is not possible with diabetes. Below is a sample menu for the week.
- Morning meal: salad with cucumber and cabbage, oatmeal, weak tea.
- Snacks: apple or kefir.
- Lunch: vegetable soup, zucchini casserole, compote.
- Snacks: cottage cheese casserole.
- Evening meal: buckwheat porridge, boiled chicken fillet, juice.
The second day.
- Breakfast: milk pumpkin porridge, jelly.
- Snacks: Biscuits.
- Lunch: lean borscht, millet porridge with fried pollock fillet, green tea.
- Snacks: sour milk.
- Dinner: squash stew, kefir.
- Morning meal: boiled egg, cheese sandwich, coffee.
- Appetizer: baked apple.
- Lunch: fish soup, buckwheat porridge, steamed chicken cutlets, tomato juice.
- Snack: orange.
- Evening meal: milky rice porridge, boiled shrimp, fermented fried milk.
The fourth day.
- Breakfast: scrambled eggs, cheese sandwich, tea.
- Snacks: salad with tomatoes, cucumbers and peppers.
- Lunch: cabbage soup, fried fish, compote.
- Snacks: raspberry jelly.
- Evening meal: boiled turkey, tomato juice.
The fifth day.
- Morning meal: baked pumpkin, apple compote.
- Snack: one apple.
- Lunch: mushroom soup, oatmeal, carrot juice.
- Snacks: kefir.
- Dinner: lazy cabbage rolls, sour milk.
The sixth day.
- Morning meal: cottage cheese, coffee.
- Snacks: apple juice and cookies.
- Lunch: soup with chicken pieces and buckwheat, fried hake, compote.
- Snacks: vegetable salad.
- Evening meal: steamed beef cutlet, oatmeal, carrot juice.
The seventh day.
- Breakfast: pumpkin porridge, green tea.
- Snacks: any fruit allowed.
- Lunch: soup with rice, paprika stuffed with chicken meat, tomato juice.
- Snacks: vegetable salad, cheese sandwich.
- Dinner: buckwheat porridge, stewed cabbage, kefir.
There can be six meals. But the main thing is that the last meal should be no later than three hours before bedtime.
Diabetes diet therapy is not difficult, but necessary. The list of allowed products is quite large, so the diet will not be monotonous. The key is to understand that a healthy diet is the key to maintaining good health and normal blood sugar levels when you are sick.